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The Environment

The Tyalgum District is situated in the subtropics and part of the NSW North Coast Bioregion recognised as one of Australia’s most diverse in terms of its natural terrain, flora and fauna. Geographically the district is comprised of a deep dished valley on the western perimeter of Mount Warning and surrounded by the ranges of the erosion caldera of the Tweed shield volcano, of which Mount Warning (Wollumbin) now remains as an isolated plug. Over 20 million years old, the caldera is one of the best preserved for its age in the world and also one of the largest. It is remarkable for its size, prominent central mountain mass, and because the caldera floor has been eroded down to basement by the Tweed River. The Oxley River which flows along the edge of the village and its tributaries form the middle arm of the Tweed.

Oxley River at Rocky Cutting

Oxley River at Rocky Cutting

The ranges and steep escarpments of the caldera that create the border of our district are part of the World Heritage listed Gondwana Rainforests of Australia. They include Mount Warning, Mebbin and the Border Ranges National Parks, and the Limpinwood Nature Reserve. These contain areas of subtropical, warm temperate and cool temperate rainforests that are home to numerous rare and threatened species. Although rainforests are the main vegetation types, there are also important stands of open forests, woodlands and shrublands.



           Rainforest in the

        surrounding ranges



The valley is dominated by a peaceful rural landscape consisting mainly of farming lands cleared for pasture. This means that as you drive up the rural roads toward the head of the valley there are absolutely spectacular uninterrupted views of the ranges and escarpment.